Wikipedia

new balance sale outlet,is a club and ballsportin which players use variousclubsto hitballsinto a series of holes on acoursein as few strokes as possible.

Golf, unlike mostball games, cannot and does not utilize a standardized playing area, and coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game. The game at the highest level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller, often 9 holes. Each hole on the course must contain atee boxto start from, and aputting greencontaining the actual hole or cup (4.25 inches in width). There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough (long grass), sand traps, and hazards (water, rocks, fescue) but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement.

Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known asstroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known asmatch play. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels, but most especially at the elite level.

While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the games ancient origins are unclear and much debated. Some historians[3]trace the sport back to the Roman game ofpaganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game.[4]Others citechuiwan(chui means striking and wan means small ball) as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and 14th centuries.[5]A Ming Dynasty scroll dating back to 1368 entitled The Autumn Banquet shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole. The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known ascambucain England and chambot in France.[6]The Persian gamechaugnis another possible ancient origin. In addition,kolven(a game involving a ball and curved bats) was played annually in Loenen, Netherlands, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin ofFloris V, a year earlier.

The modern gameoriginated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf isJames IIs banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery.[7]James IVlifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503-1504: For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with.[8]To many golfers, theOld CourseatSt Andrews, alinks coursedating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage.[9]In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes.[10]Golf is documented as being played onMusselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.[11][12]The oldest survivingrules of golfwere compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, later renamedThe Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, which was played atLeith, Scotland.[13]The worlds oldest golf tournament in existence, and golfs first major, isThe Open Championship, which was first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, Scotland, withScottish golfers winning the earliest majors.[14]Two Scotsmen fromDunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the US by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up Americas first golf club the same year, St. Andrews Golf Club inYonkers, New York.[15]

A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with ateeing groundthat is set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area,fairwayroughand otherhazards, and theputting greensurrounded by the fringe with the pin (normally a flagstick) and cup.

The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a dogleg, in reference to a dogs knee. The hole is called a dogleg left if the hole angles leftwards and dogleg right if it bends right. Sometimes, a holes direction may bend twice; this is called a double dogleg.

A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes.[16][17]

Early Scottish golf courses were primarily laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches.[18]This gave rise to the term golf links, particularly applied to seaside courses and those built on naturally sandy soil inland.

The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm inDowners Grove, Illinois, in 1892. The course is still there today.[19]

1=teeing ground, 2=water hazard, 3=rough, 4=out of bounds, 5=sand bunker, 6=water hazard, 7=fairway, 8=putting green, 9=flagstick, 10=hole

Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A round typically consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout. Each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people. Though a typical group playing will have 1, 2, 3 or 4 people playing the round. The typical amount of time required for pace of play for a 9-hole round is two hours and four hours for an 18-hole round.

Playing a hole on a golf course is initiated by putting a ball into play by striking it with a club on theteeing ground(also called the tee box, or simply the tee). For this first shot on each hole, it is allowed but not required for the golfer to place the ball on ateeprior to striking it. A tee is a small peg that can be used to elevate the ball slightly above the ground up to a few centimetres high. Tees are commonly made of wood but may be constructed of any material, including plastic. Traditionally, golfers used mounds of sand to elevate the ball, and containers of sand were provided for the purpose. A few courses still require sand to be used instead of peg tees, to reduce litter and reduce damage to the teeing ground. Tees help reduce the interference of the ground or grass on the movement of the club making the ball easier to hit, and also places the ball in the very centre of the striking face of the club (the sweet spot) for better distance.

When the initial shot on a hole is intended to move the ball a long distance (typically more than 225 yards (210 m)), the shot is commonly called a drive and is generally made with a long-shafted, large-headedwoodclub called a driver. Shorter holes may be initiated with other clubs, such as higher-numbered woods orirons. Once the ball comes to rest, the golfer strikes it again as many times as necessary using shots that are variously known as a lay-up, an approach, a pitch, or achip, until the ball reaches the green, where he or she thenputtsthe ball into the hole (commonly called sinking the putt or holing out). The goal of getting the ball into the hole (holing the ball) in as few strokes as possible may be impeded by obstacles such as areas of longer grass called rough (usually found alongside fairways), which both slows any ball that contacts it and makes it harder to advance a ball that has stopped on it; doglegs, which are changes in the direction of the fairway that often require shorter shots to play around them;bunkers(or sand traps); andwater hazardssuch as ponds or streams.[16]

In stroke play competitions played according tostrict rules, each player plays his or her ball until it is holed no matter how many strokes that may take. In match play it is acceptable to simply pick up ones ball and surrender the hole after enough strokes have been made by a player that it is mathematically impossible for the player to win the hole. It is also acceptable in informal stroke play to surrender the hole after hitting three strokes more than the par rating of the hole (a triple bogey – see below); while technically a violation of Rule 3-2, this practice speeds play as a courtesy to others, and avoids runaway scores, excessive frustration and injuries caused by overexertion.

The total distance from the first tee box to the 18th green can be quite long; total yardages through the green can be in excess of 7,000 yards (6,400 m), and when adding in the travel distance between the green of one hole and the tee of the next, even skilled players may easily travel five miles or more during a round. At some courses, electricgolf cartsare used to travel between shots, which can speed-up play and allows participation by individuals unable to walk a whole round. On other courses players generally walk the course, either carrying their bag using a shoulder strap or using a golf trolley for their bag. These trolleys may or may not be battery assisted. At many amateur tournaments including U.S. high school and college play, players are required to walk and to carry their own bags, but at the professional and top amateur level, as well as at high-level private clubs, players may be accompanied bycaddies, who carry and manage the players equipment and who are allowed by the rules to give advice on the play of the course.[20]A caddys advice can only be given to the player or players for whom the caddy is working, and not to other competing players.

The rules of golf are internationally standardised and are jointly governed by The R&A, spun off in 2004 fromThe Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews(founded 1754), and theUnited States Golf Association(USGA).[21][22]

The underlying principle of the rules is fairness. As stated on the back cover of the official rule book:

There are strict regulations regarding the amateur status of golfers.[23]Essentially, anybody who has ever received payment or compensation for giving instruction, or played golf for money, is not considered an amateur and may not participate in competitions limited solely to amateurs. However, amateur golfers may receive expenses that comply with strict guidelines and they may accept non-cash prizes within the limits established by the Rules of Amateur Status.

In addition to the officially printed rules, golfers also abide by a set of guidelines calledgolf etiquette. Etiquette guidelines cover matters such as safety, fairness, pace of play, and a players obligation to contribute to the care of the course. Though there are no penalties for breach of etiquette rules, players generally follow the rules of golf etiquette in an effort to improve everyones playing experience.

Penalties are incurred in certain situations. They are counted towards a players score as if there were extra swing(s) at the ball. Strokes are added for rule infractions or for hitting ones ball into an unplayable situation.

A lost ball or a ball hit out of bounds result in a penalty of one stroke and distance (Rule 271). A one-stroke penalty is assessed if a players equipment causes the ball to move or the removal of a loose impediment causes the ball to move (Rule 182). A one-stroke penalty is assessed if a players ball results into a red or yellow staked hazard (Rule 26). If a golfer makes a stroke at the wrong ball (Rule 192) or hits a fellow golfers ball with a putt (Rule 195), the player incurs a two-stroke penalty. Most rule infractions lead to stroke penalties but also can lead to disqualification. Disqualification could be from cheating, signing for a lower score, or from rule infractions that lead to improper play.[24]

Golf clubsare used to hit thegolf ball. Each club is composed of a shaft with a lance (or grip) on the top end and a club head on the bottom. Long clubs, which have a lower amount of degree loft, are those meant to propel the ball a comparatively longer distance, and short clubs a higher degree of loft and a comparatively shorter distance. The actual physical length of each club is longer or shorter, depending on the distance the club is intended to propel the ball.

Golf clubs have traditionally been arranged into three basic types.Woodsare large-headed, long-shafted clubs meant to propel the ball a long distance from relatively open lies, such as the tee box and fairway. Of particular importance is thedriveror 1-wood, which is the lowest lofted wood club, and in modern times has become highly specialized for making extremely long-distance tee shots, up to 300 yards (270 m), or more, in a professional golfers hands. Traditionally these clubs had heads made of a hardwood, hence the name, but virtually all modern woods are now made of metal such as titanium, or of composite materials.Ironsare shorter-shafted clubs with a metal head primarily consisting of a flat, angled striking face. Traditionally the clubhead was forged from iron; modern iron clubheads are investment-cast from a steel alloy. Irons of varying loft are used for a variety of shots from virtually anywhere on the course, but most often for shorter-distance shots approaching the green, or to get the ball out of tricky lies such as sand traps. The third class is theputter, which evolved from the irons to create a low-lofted, balanced club designed to roll the ball along the green and into the hole. Putters are virtually always used on the green or in the surrounding rough/fringe. A fourth class, calledhybrids, evolved as a cross between woods and irons, and are typically seen replacing the low-lofted irons with a club that provides similar distance, but a higher launch angle and a more forgiving nature.

A maximum of 14 clubs is allowed in a players bag at one time during a stipulated round. The choice of clubs is at the golfers discretion, although every club must be constructed in accordance with parameters outlined in the rules. (Clubs that meet these parameters are usually called conforming.) Violation of these rules can result in disqualification.

The exact shot hit at any given time on a golf course, and which club is used to accomplish the shot, are always completely at the discretion of the golfer; in other words, there is no restriction whatsoever on which club a golfer may or may not use at any time for any shot.

Golf ballsare spherical, usually white (although other colours are allowed), and minutely pock-marked by dimples that decrease aerodynamic drag by increasing air turbulence around the ball in motion, which delays boundary layer separation and reduces the drag-inducing wake behind the ball, thereby allowing the ball to fly farther.[25]The combination of a soft boundary layer and a hard core enables both distance and spin.

Ateeis allowed only for the first stroke on each hole, unless the player must hit a provisional tee shot or replay his or her first shot from the tee.

Many golfers weargolf shoeswith metal or plastic spikes designed to increase traction, thus allowing for longer and more accurate shots.

Agolf bagis used to transport golf clubs and the players other or personal equipment. Golf bags have several pockets designed for carrying equipment and supplies such as tees, balls, and gloves. Golf bags can be carried, pulled on a trolley or harnessed to a motorizedgolf cartduring play. Golf bags have both a hand strap and shoulder strap for carrying, and sometimes have retractable legs that allow the bag to stand upright when at rest.

The golf swing is outwardly similar to many other motions involving swinging a tool or playing implement, such as an axe or a baseball bat; however, unlike many of these motions, the result of the swing is highly dependent on several sub-motions being properly aligned and timed, to ensure that the club travels up to the ball in line with the desired path, the clubface is in line with the swing path, and the ball impacts the centre or sweet spot of the clubface. The ability to do this consistently, across a complete set of clubs with a wide range of shaft lengths and clubface areas, is a key skill for any golfer, and takes a significant effort to achieve.

Golfers start with the non-dominant side of the body facing the target (for a right-hander, the target is to their left). At address, the players body and the centerline of the club face are positioned parallel to the desired line of travel, with the feet either perpendicular to that line or slightly splayed outward. The feet are commonly shoulder-width apart for middle irons and putters, narrower for short irons and wider for long irons and woods. The ball is typically positioned more to the front of the players stance (closer to the leading foot) for lower-lofted clubs, with the usual ball position for a drive being just behind the arch of the leading foot. The ball is placed further back in the players stance (toward the trailing foot) as the loft of the club to be used increases. Most iron shots and putts are made with the ball roughly centered in the stance, while a few mid- and short-iron shots are made with the ball slightly behind the centre of the stance to ensure consistent contact between the ball and clubface, so the ball is on its way before the club continues down into the turf.

The golfer chooses a golf club, grip, and stroke appropriate to the distance:

The drive or full swing is used on the teeing ground and fairway, typically with a wood or long iron, to produce the maximum distance capable with the club. In the extreme, the windup can end with the shaft of the club parallel to the ground above the players shoulders.

The approach or 3/4 swing is used in medium- and long-distance situations where an exact distance and good accuracy is preferable to maximum possible distance, such as to place the ball on the green or lay up in front of a hazard. The windup or backswing of such a shot typically ends up with the shaft of the club pointing straight upwards or slightly towards the player.

The chip or half-swing is used for relatively short-distance shots near the green, with high-lofted irons and wedges. The goal of the chip is to land the ball safely on the green, allowing it to roll out towards the hole. It can also be used from other places to accurately position the ball into a more advantageous lie. The backswing typically ends with the head of the club between hip and head height.

The putt is used in short-distance shots on or near the green, typically made with the eponymous putter, although similar strokes can be made with medium to high-numbered irons to carry a short distance in the air and then roll (a bump and run). The backswing and follow-through of the putt are both abbreviated compared to other strokes, with the head of the club rarely rising above the knee. The goal of the putt is usually to put the ball in the hole, although a long-distance putt may be called a lag and is made with the primary intention of simply closing distance to the hole or otherwise placing the ball advantageously.

Having chosen a club and stroke to produce the desired distance, the player addresses the ball by taking their stance to the side of it and (except when the ball lies in a hazard) grounding the club behind the ball. The golfer then takes their backswing, rotating the club, their arms and their upper body away from the ball, and then begins their swing, bringing the clubhead back down and around to hit the ball. A proper golf swing is a complex combination of motions, and slight variations in posture or positioning can make a great deal of difference in how well the ball is hit and how straight it travels. The general goal of a player making a full swing is to propel the clubhead as fast as possible while maintaining a single plane of motion of the club and clubhead, to send the clubhead into the ball along the desired path of travel and with the clubhead also pointing that direction.

Accuracy and consistency are typically stressed over pure distance. A player with a straight drive that travels only 220 yards (200 m) will nevertheless be able to accurately place the ball into a favourable lie on the fairway, and can make up for the lesser distance of any given club by simply using more club (a lower loft) on their tee shot or on subsequent fairway and approach shots. However, a golfer with a drive that may go 280 yards (260 m) but often doesnt fly straight will be less able to position their ball advantageously; the ball may hook, pull, draw, fade, push or slice off the intended line and land out of bounds or in the rough or hazards, and thus the player will require many more strokes to hole out.

A golf stroke uses muscles oncore(especiallyerector spinae musclesandlatissimus dorsi musclewhen turning),hamstringshoulder, andwrist. Stronger muscles on wrist can prevent wrists from being twisted at swings, while stronger shoulders increase the turning force. Weak wrists can also deliver the impacts to elbows and even neck and lead to injury of them. (When a muscle contracts, it pulls equally from both ends and, to have movement at only one end of the muscle, other muscles must come into play to stabilize the bone to which the other end of the muscle is attached.) Golf is a unilateral exercise that can break body balances, requiring exercises to keep the balance in muscles.[26][27]

Putting is considered to be the most important component of the game of golf. As the game of golf has evolved, there have been many different putting techniques and grips that have been devised to give golfers the best chance to make putts. When the game originated, golfers would putt with their dominate hand on the bottom of the grip and their weak hand on top of the grip. This grip and putting style is known as conventional. There are many variations of conventional including overlap, where the golfer overlaps the off hand index finger onto off the dominant pinky; interlock, where the offhand index finger interlocks with the dominant pinky and ring finger; double or triple overlap and so on.[28]Recently, cross handed putting has become a popular trend amongst professional golfers and amateurs. Cross handed putting is the idea that the dominant hand is on top of the grip where the weak hand is on the bottom. This grip restricts the motion in your dominant hand and eliminates the possibility of wrist breakdowns through the putting stroke.[29]

Other notable putting styles include the claw, a style that has the grip directly in between the thumb and index finger of the dominant hand while the palm faces the target.[30]The weak hand placed normally on the putter. Anchored putting, a style that requires a longer putter shaft that can be anchored into the players stomach or below the chin; the idea is to stabilize one end of the putter thus creating a more consistent pendulum stroke. This style will be banned in 2016 on the profession circuits.[31]

A hole is classified by its par, meaning the number of strokes a skilled golfer should require to complete play of the hole.[16]The minimum par of any hole is 3 because par always includes a stroke for the tee shot and two putts. Pars of 4 and 5 strokes are ubiquitous on golf courses; more rarely, a few courses feature par-6 and even par-7 holes. Strokes other than the tee shot and putts are expected to be made from the fairway; for example, a skilled golfer expects to reach thegreenon a par-4 hole in two strokesone from the tee (the drive) and another, second, stroke to the green (the approach)and then roll the ball into the hole in two putts for par. Putting the ball on the green with two strokes remaining for putts is called making green in regulation or GIR.[32]Missing a GIR does not necessarily mean a golfer will not make par, but it does make doing so more difficult as it reduces the number of putts available; conversely, making a GIR does not guarantee a par, as the player might require three or more putts to hole out. Professional golfers typically make between 60% and 70% of greens in regulation.[33]

The primary factor for classifying the par of a relatively straight, hazard-free hole is the distance from the tee to the green. A typical par-3 hole is less than 250 yards (225 m) in length, with a par-4 hole ranging between 251 and 475 yards (225434 m), and a par-5 hole being longer than 475 yards (435 m). The rare par-6s can stretch well over 650 yards (590 m). These distances are based on the typical scratch golfers drive distance of between 240 and 280 yards (220 and 260 m); a green further than the average players drive will require additional shots from the fairway. However, other considerations must be taken into account; the key question is how many strokes would a scratch golfer take to make the green by playing along the fairway?. The grade of the land from the tee to the hole might increase or decrease the carry and rolling distance of shots as measured linearly along the ground. Sharp turns or hazards may require golfers to lay up on the fairway in order to change direction or hit over the hazard with their next shot. These design considerations will affect how even a scratch golfer would play the hole, irrespective of total distance from tee to green, and must be included in a determination of par.[34]However, a par score never includes expected penalty strokes, as a scratch player is never expected to hit a ball into a water hazard or other unplayable situation. So, the placement of hazards only affect par when considering how a scratch golfer would avoid them.

Eighteen-hole courses typically total to an overall par score of 72 for a complete round; this is based on an average par of 4 for every hole, and so is often arrived at by designing a course with an equal number of par-5 and par-3 holes, the rest being par-4. Many combinations exist that total to par-72, and other course pars exist from 68 up to 76, and are not less worthy than courses of par-72. Additionally, in some countries including the United States, courses are classified according to their play difficulty, which may be used to calculate a golfers playinghandicapfor a given course.[35]

The two primary difficulty ratings in the U.S. are the Course Rating, which is effectively the expected score for a zero-handicap scratch golfer playing the course (and may differ from the course par), and the Slope Rating, which is a measure of how much worse a bogey golfer (with an 18 handicap) would be expected to play than a scratch golfer. These two numbers are available for any USGA-sanctioned course, and are used in a weighted system to calculate handicaps (see below).

The goal is to play as few strokes per round as possible. A golfers score is usually expressed as the difference between the players number of strokes and the par score. Ahole in one(or an ace) occurs when a golfer sinks their ball into the cup with their first stroke from the tee. Common scores for a hole also have specific terms.[16]

In a typical professional tournament or among scratch amateur players, birdie-bogey play is common; a player will lose a stroke by bogeying a hole, then gain one by scoring a birdie. Eagles are uncommon but not rare; however, only18 players have scored an albatrossin a mens major championship.

There are two basic forms of golf play, match play and stroke play. Stroke play is more popular.

Two players (or two teams) play each hole as a separate contest against each other in what is calledmatch play. The party with the lower score wins that hole, or if the scores of both players or teams are equal the hole is halved (or tied). The game is won by the party that wins more holes than the other. In the case that one team or player has taken a lead that cannot be overcome in the number of holes remaining to be played, the match is deemed to be won by the party in the lead, and the remainder of the holes are not played. For example, if one party already has a lead of six holes, and only five holes remain to be played on the course, the match is over and the winning party is deemed to have won 6 & 5. At any given point, if the lead is equal to the number of holes remaining, the party leading the match is said to be dormie, and the match is continued until the party increases the lead by one hole or ties any of the remaining holes, thereby winning the match, or until the match ends in a tie with the lead players opponent winning all remaining holes. When the game is tied after the predetermined number of holes have been played, it may be continued until one side takes a one-hole lead.[16]

The score achieved for each and every hole of the round or tournament is added to produce the total score, and the player with the lowest score wins instroke play. Stroke play is the game most commonly played by professional golfers. If there is a tie after the regulation number of holes in a professional tournament, a playoff takes place between all tied players. Playoffs either are sudden death or employ a pre-determined number of holes, anywhere from three to a full 18. In sudden death, a player who scores lower on a hole than all of his opponents wins the match. If at least two players remain tied after such a playoff using a pre-determined number of holes, then play continues in sudden death format, where the first player to win a hole wins the tournament.

The other forms of play in the game of golf are bogey competition, skins, 9-points, stableford, team play, and unofficial team variations.

A bogey competition is a scoring format sometime